By Benjamin Crowell
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Extra resources for 2-Conservation Laws
To summarize, we have: rule for calculating work (simplest version) The work done by a force can be calculated as W = Fd , if the force is constant and in the same direction as the motion. Some ambiguities are encountered in cases such as kinetic friction. 1 Work: The Transfer of Mechanical Energy 51 Mechanical work done in an earthquake example 1 In 1998, geologists discovered evidence for a big prehistoric earthquake in Pasadena, between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago. 3 × 1017 N. How much energy was released?
The normal force is perpendicular to the direction of motion, and does no work. However, the frictional force is in the same direction as the motion of the bow, so it does work: energy is transferred to the string, causing it to vibrate. One way of playing a violin more loudly is to use longer strokes. Since W = F d, the greater distance results in more work. A second way of getting a louder sound is to press the bow more firmly against the strings. This increases the normal force, and although the normal force itself does no work, an increase in the normal force has the side effect of increasing the frictional force, thereby increasing W = F d.
3 All Energy is Potential or Kinetic e / All these energy transformations turn out at the atomic level to be changes in potential energy resulting from changes in the distances between atoms. 42 Chapter 2 In the same way that we found that a change in temperature is really only a change in kinetic energy at the atomic level, we now find that every other form of energy turns out to be a form of potential energy. Boiling, for instance, means knocking some of the atoms (or molecules) out of the liquid and into the space above, where they constitute a gas.
2-Conservation Laws by Benjamin Crowell