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Additional resources for Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 15
22a. oven. In fact, the most probable velocity in the beam is m The deflection of atoms in the beam will generally be less than s, The values of Is] at the maxima of the curves occur at about (s,1/3 for large s, (s, 10a or greater). In the case of cesium, the beam is composed of atoms in 16 different states. A different peffand s, is associated with each state. The observed intensity distribution is then the composite of all of these separate intensity distributions. All of the separate distributions have approximately equal - ATOMIC BEAM FREQUENCY STANDARDS 25 26 RICHARD C.
At the point 1~ = 0, z = 1 . 641 a and The current has been conveniently eliminated in this relationship. The lines of H and the magnetic equipotentials form a system of orbhogonal circles for two parallel wires. This same field configuration can be produced by an iron magnet by simply contouring t'he pole surfaces to coincide with two equipotential surfaces (see Fig. 13b). Suitably large deflections for cesium atoms can be obtained with rather simple low power magnets of this kind. In molecular beam experiments the effective magnetic moments of the molecules are ordinarily the order of a nuclear magneton; very large magnets are required and beam widths must be smaller.
17. Simplified electrometer circuit for the detection of atomic beelri ion currents us consider the noise in such a circuit. We will neglect the noise resulting from beam fluctuations and impurity ions boiled off the detector wire. The important sources of noise remaining are the Brownian motion of electricity in the grid circuit and the shot noise of the grid current. Using that the mean the Schottky and Nyquist relations, it can be shown (19,20) squared deviation of the grid current is given by so long as the time constant r of the galvanometer is much less than the time constant, R,C,, of the grid circuit.
Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 15