By Ruth Hull
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Extra resources for Anatomy & physiology for beauty and complementary therapies
These fibres give skin its extensibility, elasticity and strength. The reticular layer is the main support structure of the skin and it also contains: • • • • • Hair follicles Nerves Oil glands Ducts of sweat glands Adipose tissue. Subcutaneous layer Although it is not part of the skin, it is important to learn about the subcutaneous layer as it is the tissue that attaches the reticular layer to the underlying organs. The subcutaneous layer contains: • Areolar connective tissue • Adipose tissue • Lamellated corpuscles (Pacinian corpuscles) – these are nerve endings that are sensitive to pressure.
When you shave the hairs off your skin, you are cutting off many layers of dead skin, yet you don’t bleed. This is because the epidermis is avascular. That means it contains no blood vessels. 62 • It is composed of a single layer of cuboidal or columnar shaped cells that have nuclei. • It is constantly producing new cells through cell division. This is the reason it is sometimes called the stratum germinativum. • The cells are pushed upwards towards the superficial layers of the skin by newly produced cells below.
Langerhans cells – these arise from bone marrow and move to the epidermis. They respond to foreign bodies and thus play a role in skin immunity. • Merkel cells – these are only found in the stratum basale of hairless skin and are attached to keratinocytes. They make contact with nerve cells to form Merkel discs that function in the sensation of touch. Did you know? A blister from a burn or excess friction is simply an area where the epidermis and dermis have separated. We will now look at the five layers of the epidermis and the meanings of their names.
Anatomy & physiology for beauty and complementary therapies by Ruth Hull